Rebecca Kennison, who is the Principal of K|N Consultants, the co-founder of the Open Access Network; and was was the founding director of the Center for Digital Research and Scholarship, gave this talk on Come Together Right Now: An Introduction To The Open Access Network as part of the Program on Information Science Brown Bag Series.
In the talk, illustrated by the slides below, Kennison argues that current models of OA publishing based on cost-per-unit are neither scalable nor sustainable. She further argues that a sustainable model must be based on continuing regular voluntary contributions from research universities.
In her abstract, Kennison summarizes as follows:
Officially launched just over a year ago, the Open Access Network (OAN) offers a transformative, sustainable, and scalable model of open access (OA) publishing and preservation that encourages partnerships among scholarly societies, research libraries, and other partners (e.g., academic publishers, university presses, collaborative e-archives) who share a common mission to support the creation and distribution of open research and scholarship and to encourage more affordable education, which can be a direct outcome of OA publishing. Our ultimate goal is to develop a collective funding approach that is fair and open and that fully sustains the infrastructure needed to support the full life-cycle for communication of the scholarly record, including new and evolving forms of research output. Simply put, we intend to Make Knowledge Public.
Kennison’s talk summarizes the argument in her 2014 paper with Lisa Norberg : A Scalable and Sustainable Approach to Open Access Publishing and Archiving for Humanities and Social Sciences. Those intrigued by these arguments may find a wealth of detail in the full paper.
Kennison argues that this form of network would offer value to three groups of stakeholders in general:
- For institutions and libraries, to advance research and scholarship, lower the cost of education, and support lifelong learning.
- For scholarly societies, university presses: ensure revenue, sustain operations, and support innovation.
- For individuals, foundations, corporations: provide wide access to research and scholarship to address societal challenges, support education, and grow the economy.
The Program on Information Science has previously written on the information economics of the commons in Information Wants Someone Else to Pay For It. Two critical questions posed by an economic analysis of the OAN are first: What is the added value to the individual contributor that they would not obtain unless they individually contribute? (Note that this is different from the group value above — since any stakeholder gets these values if the OAN exists, whether or not they contribute to it.) Second, under what conditions does the approach lead to the right amount of information being produced? For example both market-based solutions and pure-altruistic solutions to producing knowledge outputs yield something — they just don’t yield anything close to the social optimum level of knowledge production and use. What reasons do we have to believe that the fee-structure of the OAN comes closer?
In addition, Kennison discussed the field of linguistics as a prototype. It is a comparatively small discipline (1000’s of researchers) and the output is focused in approximately 60 journals. Notably, a number of high-profile departments recently changed their tenure and promotion policy to recognize the OA journal Glossa as the equivalent of top journal Lingua, when the former’s board departed in protest.
This is a particularly interesting example because successful management of knowledge commons is often built around coherent communities. For commons management to work — as Ostrom’s work shows, behavior must be reliably observable within a community, the community must be able to impose its own effective and graduated sanctions, and determine its own rules for doing so. I conjecture that particular technical and/or policy-based solutions to knowledge commons management (let’s call these “knowledge infrastructure”) have the potential to scale when three conditions hold: (1) the knowledge infrastructure addresses a vertical community that includes an interdependent set of producers and consumers of knowledge, (2) the approach provides substantial incentives for individuals in that vertical community to contribute while (a) providing public goods to both that community and (b) to a larger community; and (3) the approach is built upon community-specific extensions of more general-purpose infrastructure.
Gary Price, who is chief editor of InfoDocket, contributing editor of Search Engine Land, co-founder of Full Text Reports and who has worked with internet search firms and library systems developers alike, gave this talk on Issues in Curating the Open Web at Scale as part of the Program on Information Science Brown Bag Series.
In the talk, illustrated by the slides below, Price argued that the libraries should be more aggressively engaging with content on the open web (i.e. stuff you find through Google). He further argued that the traditional methods and knowledge used by librarians to curate traditional print collections may be usefully applied to open web content.
Price has been a leader in developing and observing web discovery — as a director of ask.com, and as author of the first book to cogently summarize the limitations of web search: The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can’t See. The talk gave a whirlwind tour of the history of curation of the open web, and noted the many early efforts aimed at curating resource directories that withered away with the ascent of Google.
In his abstract, Price summarizes as follows:
Much of the web remains invisible: resources are undescribed, unindexed or simply buried — as many people rarely look past the first page of Google searches or are unavailable from traditional library resources. At the same time many traditional library databases pay little attention to quality content from credible sources accessible on the open web.
How do we build collections of quality open-web resources (i.e. documents, specialty databases, and multimedia) and make them accessible to individuals and user groups when and where they need it?
This talk reflects on the emerging tools for systematic programmatic curation; the legal challenges to open-web curation; long term access issues, and the historical challenges to building sustainable communities of curation.
Across his talk, Price stressed three arguments.
First, that much of the web remains invisible: Many databases and structure information sources are not indexed by Google. And although increasing amounts of structured information is indexed — most is behaviorally invisible — since the vast majority of people do not look beyond the first page of Google results. Further, behavioral invisibility of information is exacerbated by the decreasing support for complex search operators in open web search engines.
Second, Price argued that library curation of the open web would add value: Curation would make the invisible web visible; counteract gaming of results; and identify credible sources.
Third, Price argued that a machine-assisted approach can be an effective strategy. He described how tools such as website watcher, archiveit, RSS aggregators, social media monitoring services, and content alerting services can be brought together by a trained curator, to develop continually updated collections of content that are of interest to targeted communities of practice. He argued that familiarity with these tools and approaches should be part of the Librarian’s toolkit – especially for those in liaison roles.
Similar tools are discussed in the courses we teach on professional reputation management — and I’ve found a number (particularly the latter three) useful as an individual professional. More generally, I speculate that curation of the open web will be a larger part of the library mission — as we have argued in the 2015 National Agenda for Digital Stewardship, organizations rely on more information than they can directly steward. The central problem is coordinating stakeholders around stewarding collection from which they derive common value. This remains a deep, and unsolved problem, however, efforts such as The Keeper’s Registry and collaborations such as the International Internet Preservation Society (IIPC) and the National Digital Stewardship Alliance (NDSA) are making progress in this area.